The zonal model of semiconductors. Direct and indirect semiconductors. Electrons and holes. The density of quantum states.
Purity and impurity - semiconductors. The concentration of electrons and holes in balance. Temperature-dependence of concentration. Global spatial charge neutrality. Drift of electrons in a semiconductor. Influence of temperature and outreach on mobility. Generation and recombination of carriers. Drift, diffusion and recombination. The equation of continuity.
The structure of PN junction. Diffusion potential. The zonal profile PN junction. Distribution of free and bound charge. PN junction outside thermodynamic equilibrium. Current-voltage characteristics of PN junction. PN junction capacitance. Compound semiconductor-metal.
Work function and electron affinity. Thermionic emission. Emission by the electric field. Schottky barrier effect.
Rectifying contact. Ohmic contact. MOS structure. The distribution of charges, fields and potentials. Polarization modes MOS structures: the impoverishment, inversion, accumulation. Hetero PN junction. The zonal structure, distribution charges, fields and potentials. Direct and indirect polarization. Transients in the PN junction. Zener diode. Avalanche diodes.
Optoelectronic devices based on PN junction. Qualitative review: semiconductor lasers, light emitting diodes, photo detectors, solar cells. Field effect transistors. Qualitative theory of work JFET. Linear mode and the saturation regime. Qualitative theory of work MOSFET. Effective mobility. The theory of quadratic law. Bipolar transistors. The components of current in a transistor. Performance parameters. Basic amplifying configuration. Static characteristics of the active mode. The case of a short base. Early effect. Operating modes (direct and inverse active mode, saturation and locking).