Comparison of dedicated computer systems to other computer systems. Architecture of dedicated computer systems. CPU in the context of a complete system with I/O and memory. CPU families used in microcontrollers. Memory management unit. Memory hierarchy and cache. Design of the memory system and how it affects the design of programs and the characteristics of systems. The use of multiprocessors in embedded systems. The effect of multiple processors on features, power supplying and costs. Understanding the fundamental design techniques. Hardware/software aggregates for systems with one bus. A more general architecture. FPGA platform as a multiprocessor. The exchange between the CPU and fixed logic associated with multiprocessors. Networked embedded systems. Example of networked embedded systems: cars, factory automation systems. Performance analysis of networks. Systems with built-in Internet. Interfaces and systems with analog and digital signals. Digital to analog conversion. Analog to digital conversion. Digital signal processing and real time operation. Software support for real time operation. Operating systems for embedded systems. Development environment for embedded systems. Cross compilers, simulators and emulators. Logic analyzers. Tools for software management. Project management tools. Sources of errors in embedded systems. Transient and permanent failures in the hardware. Sources of errors stemming from the software. The role of verification in the design of reliable systems. The techniques in designing tolerant systems. Computers with low power consumption. Sources of energy. The functioning of the management units. Power consumption of the memory system. Power management at the system level.