The principles of operation and measurement techniques. Methods of classification of sensors and actuators. Types of sensors (resistive and capacitive sensors, electromagnetic sensors, piezoelectric sensors, optoelectronic sensors, digital sensors).
Application of sensors (sensors of linear and angular displacement, velocity sensors, acceleration, force and torque, pressure sensors, level and flow; sensors for measuring temperature and humidity, proximity sensors, tactile sensors). Types of actuators and their application (light modulators and detectors, controllers, flow switches, motors, solenoids). Integrated sensors (integrated temperature sensors, photo-sensors). Packages (housing) for the sensors. Modern integrated micro actuators (positioners, optical elements). Trends of development (microscopic sensors, micro-actuators and their integration). Micro-electro-mechanical and nano-electromechanical systems.